—John Bachman, The Doctrine of the Unity of the Human Race Examined on the Principles of Science (Charleston, S.C.: C. Canning, 1850).

Bachman (1790-1874), a Lutheran minister and naturalist, was a prominent figure in the evolutionary controversy of the 1850s. He advocated for the monogenist view, which held blacks and whites to be the same species rather than the result of “separate creations.”

— Julian John Chisolm, A Manual of Military Surgery: for the Use of Surgeons in the Confederate States Army: with Explanatory Plates of All Useful Operations. 3rd ed. (Columbia: Evans and Cogswell, 1864).

Born in Charleston, Chisolm (1830-1903) served as a surgeon in the U.S. Civil War and established one of the first general hospitals in the Confederacy. His Manual, the standard work for surgeons of the Confederacy, was based upon his observations at military and civilian hospitals in Europe.


—Ysbrand van Diemerbroeck, Opera Omnia, Anatomica et Medica (Ultrajecti: Apud Meinardum à Dreunen, & Guilielmum à Walcheren, 1685).

Diemerbroeck (1609-1674) was a professor of medicine and anatomy at Utrecht University.


—A. Sidney Doane, Surgery Illustrated: Compiled from the Works of Cutler, Hind, Velpeau, and Blasius, with Fifty-two Plates (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1836).

A prolific translator and author of medical works, Doane (1808-1852) died at the age of 46 after being exposed to the “ship-fever” in his capacity as health officer of the Port of New York. This book was compiled just prior to the transformation of surgical practice through discoveries of anesthetic pain control and bacterial infection.


—Thomas T. Ellis, Leaves from the Diary of an Army Surgeon: or, Incidents of Field Camp, and Hospital Life (New York: John Bradburn, 1863).

Ellis, a native of England, gained his medical experience as a staff-surgeon in the British Army during the Xhosa Wars and later at the Cape of Good Hope. He immigrated to the United States and served as post-surgeon at New York and acting medical director at Whitehouse, Va., during the U.S. Civil War.


—George Henry Fox, Photographic Illustrations of Cutaneous Syphilis (New York: E.B. Treat, 1881).

An American dermatologist born in upstate New York, Fox (1846-1937) served during the U.S. Civil War and was an early proponent of photography in medicine; many of his patients were photographed by O.G. Mason.


—Charles T. Jackson, A Manual of Etherization: Containing Directions for the Employment of Ether, Chloroform, and Other Anaesthetic Agents by Inhalation, in Surgical Operations: Intended for Military and Naval Surgeons, and All Who May Be Exposed to Surgical Operations, with Instructions for the Preparation of Ether and Chloroform, and for Testing Them for Impurities: Comprising, Also, a Brief History of the Discovery of Anaesthesia (Boston: Published for the author by J.B. Mansfield, 1861).


—Joseph Jones, Contagious and Infectious Diseases: Measures for Their Prevention and Arrest (Baton Rouge: [s.n.], 1884).

Jones was born in Liberty County, Georgia, in 1833 and earned his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1856. After serving in the medical department of the Confederate Army during the U.S. Civil War, he moved to New Orleans in 1868, where he pursued his interest in infectious diseases and public health.


—Thomas Story Kirkbride, On the Construction, Organization, and General Arrangements of Hospitals for the Insane (Philadelphia: [s.n.], 1854).

Kirkbride (1809-1883) served as the superintendent of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane. As an advocate for the mentally ill, he argued for the standardization of asylum buildings and floor plans.

—Charles D. Meigs, Obstetrics: the Science and the Art (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1849).

A professor of obstetrics and diseases of women, Meigs (1792-1869) opposed obstetrical anesthesia and rejected the introduction of sanitary practices during childbirth on the grounds that “Doctors are gentlemen and a gentleman’s hands are clean.”


—Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing: What It Is, and What It Is Not (New York: D. Appleton, 1865).

Born to an upper-class English family, Nightingale (1820-1910) was a social reformer and statistician who served as a nurse in the Crimean War and later became known as the founder of modern nursing.


—J.C. Nott and George R. Gliddon, Types of Mankind: or, Ethnological Researches: Based upon the Ancient Monuments, Paintings, Sculptures, and Crania of Races, and upon Their Natural, Geographic, Philological and Biblical History, Illustrated by Selections from the Inedited Papers of Samuel George Morton and by Additional Contributions from L. Agassiz, W. Usher, and H.S. Patterson (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, Grambo, 1854).

Josiah C. Nott (1804-1873), a surgeon and physician who practiced in Mobile, Alabama, and owned nine slaves, was a proponent of the polygenist concept of human origins, which posited the idea of “separate creations” of Africans and Europeans. His published works on racial theory and physical anthropology served to justify the enslavement of blacks.


—Jones Quain and W.J.E. Wilson, A Series of Anatomical Plates: with References and Physiological Comments, Illustrating the Structure of the Different Parts of the Human Body. American ed. revised (Philadelphia: G.N. Loomis, 1842).

Quain (1796-1865) was an Irish anatomist who became a professor of anatomy and physiology at the University of London. Wilson (1809-1884) was an English surgeon and dermatologist known for his advocacy of sanitary reform.


—Southern Medical & Surgical Journal, Vol. 5, No., 12, Dec. 1849, New Series. “An account of the first use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anæsthetic in Surgical Operations.” By C.W. Long, M.D., of Jefferson, Jackson Co., Georgia. (p. [705]-713).

—M. Allen Starr, Brain Surgery (New York: William Wood & Co., 1893). Figure 3, “The Median Surface of the Right Hemisphere.”

Born in Brooklyn, Starr (1854-1932) was the chair of nervous diseases at Columbia’s College of Physicians and Surgeons. This first American text on neurosurgery illustrates the relatively primitive level of understanding of the regions of the brain and their functions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.


—L.B.V. Wooley, Plates Illustrative of Diseases of the Intestinal Tract (Atlanta: Jas. P. Harrison, 1883).

Wooley was a member of the 1882 graduating class of Emory College and earned his medical degree from The Atlanta Medical College in 1884. He was a colleague of Abner Wellborn Calhoun.
This may be the only known copy of this book in existence.


—“Turning the Pages Online”: Andreas Vesalius, De Corporis Humani Fabrica Libri Septem.

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